Patient Education Reference Center Editorial Policies

Evidence-Based Information:

"Evidence-based" is a descriptor that is often used to describe health care-related reference resources.

For a clinical reference resource to truly be evidence-based, conclusions must be based on the best available evidence. Conclusions can be based on the best available evidence only if the evidence is consistently and systematically identified, evaluated and selected.

In addition to being reviewed and updated on an annual basis by the Medical Review Board, PERC content is periodically updated using EBSCO DynaMed Literature Surveillance findings. The Dynamed Editorial Team performs daily literature surveillance of 500 journals and generates reports on the most significant research. The PERC Editorial Team reviews the reports each week and updates all applicable content affected by these reports. This ensures that content in PERC captures both significant and current research being conducted in medicine today.

The EBSCO DynaMed editorial process adheres to the following strict 7-Step evidence-based methodology and protocol:

1.    Systematically identify the evidence
2.    Systematically select the best available evidence from that identified
3.    Systematically evaluate the selected evidence (critical appraisal)
4.    Objectively reflect the relevant findings and quality of the evidence
5.    Synthesize multiple evidence reports
6.    Derive conclusions and recommendations from the evidence synthesis; obtain peer review
7.    Change the conclusions when new evidence alters the best available evidence

Step 1: Identify the Evidence

Perform systematic searching

When adding a new topic or critically revising an existing topic, appropriate databases (DynaMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and others) are searched to identify the best available evidence. In addition, numerous sources are searched for evidence-based reviews (such as Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), for guidelines (such as National Guideline Clearinghouse), and more.

Step 2: Select the Best Available Evidence

Each article is assessed for clinical relevance and each relevant article is further assessed for validity relative to existing PERC content.

Determine Relevance

Determining clinical relevance is the first consideration in systematically selecting the best available evidence from the literature retrieved. The relevance of information is different for every user. Patient Education Reference Center content is developed for a consumer/patient audience. When adding information the following is considered:

  1. This information has a direct bearing on patient-oriented outcomes.
  2. This information is useful for patient education purposes.
  3. In situations where the evidence does not clearly support or refute a clinical fact, opposing views are presented.
  4. Some medical information is not clinically relevant, but is widely publicized. Summarization of this type of information is relevant to the clinician if it is likely that they will be asked about it during clinical encounters.

Determine Validity

Clinically relevant articles must be assessed to determine the scientific validity of conclusions and facts presented before consideration for use.

Step 3: Evaluate the Evidence (Critical Appraisal)

Examine the article to evaluate the article’s methodologic quality and results and determine its level of evidence.

Step 4: Objectively Reflect the Relevant Findings and Quality of the Evidence

When reporting the evidence, the following is considered:

  1. What are the most relevant outcomes to report in the topic?
  2. Were all relevant outcomes reported in the original article?
  3. For relevant outcomes, what is the magnitude of effect?
  4. Were the findings clinically significant?
  5. In the case of no statistically significant differences, were the findings robust enough to rule out clinically significant difference?
  6. Are there any methodologic limitations sufficient to alter reliability of clinical conclusions?

Step 5: Synthesize Multiple Evidence Reports

Evaluate the findings, both positive and negative, from the relevant articles and organize in a systematic fashion.

Step 6: Derive Conclusions and Recommendations from the Evidence Synthesis; Obtain Peer Review

Based on the synthesis of relevant evidence, conclusions about current knowledge are drawn and recommendations for clinical practice are made.

Step 7: Change Conclusions When New Evidence Alters the Best Available Evidence

The final step in our evidence-based methodology is changing conclusions when new evidence alters the best available evidence. This step is crucial because new evidence is published every day. Having new evidence summaries handled separately from reviewed content in a manner requiring the nurse or clinician to search in two locations to synthesize the entire story would make finding the best available evidence more difficult. As soon as new evidence is evaluated, it is added to the appropriate topic(s) in context.

 

Content Sources:

Patient Education Reference Center leverages the systematic literature surveillance process of EBSCO DynaMed and supplements this research by monitoring the content of medical and nursing journals indexed in MEDLINE, CINAHL and other appropriate databases (as necessary). Websites for organizations such as the CDC, CMS and others are also monitored.

 

Topic Selection & Content Organization:

Patient Education Reference Center content is organized in an easy-to-use interface that can be searched by disease & condition, procedure & lab test, discharge instructions and drug information. Categories of content include:

  • Fact Sheets – i.e. "Diabetes"
  • Discharge Information – i.e. "Discharge Instructions for Diabetic Foot Ulcer"
  • "How To" Information – i.e. "Self injection how to"
  • Diet Information – i.e. "Diabetes Exchange Diet"
  • Lifestyle Articles – i.e. "Living with Diabetes"
  • Health News – i.e. "FDA approves new Diabetes drug"
  • Recent Research – i.e. "New Diabetes Research Findings"
  • Lab Tests – i.e. "Urine Analysis"

Revisions of existing topics and additions of new content are prioritized by published research, frequency of user searches and customer feedback.

 

Editorial Policies for Authors & Reviewers:

All proprietary content in Patient Education Reference Center is written by an in-house writer/editor or a contract medical writer. All in-house staff writers/editors have advanced degrees in public health, health communication, or related fields and are under the supervision of a medical director, who is a licensed physician. Contract writers are either healthcare professionals with experience writing for a consumer audience, or they are writers holding advanced degrees in health journalism, public health, or related fields.

Proprietary content is reviewed by a member of the EBSCO Publishing Medical Review Board (MRB). The MRB is comprised of physicians or medical professionals with expertise in a wide range of areas, including oncology, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, internal medicine, orthopedics, geriatrics, cardiology, family practice, genetics, infectious disease, and health policy. They are experts in their respective fields, and have affiliations with some of the finest medical and research institutions in the world.

EBSCO Publishing will not ask MRB members to review content that is outside their area of expertise.

All MRB members are required to submit evidence of professional credentialing and licensure to EBSCO Publishing. No member is placed in the position of providing clinical services. EBSCO Publishing will not, under any circumstances, edit an expert's work in a manner that changes its original meaning.

The content is also reviewed by a Health Content Reviewer. A Health Content Reviewer is a professional with an advanced degree and a background in health.

 

Becoming an Author or Reviewer:

Authors and reviewers for the Patient Education Reference Center are required to have medical writing or clinical practice experience. Anyone with an interest in contributing to the Patient Education Reference Center as an author or reviewer is encouraged to send an email to eptech@ebscohost.com.

 

Editorial Staff:

Richard Glickman-Simon, MD

Richard Glickman-Simon is the Medical Director for both EBSCO Publishing's Health Library and EBSCO's Natural and Alternative Treatments (NAT) database.

Dr. Glickman-Simon is board-certified in family medicine and is an assistant professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston. He oversees the curriculum in complementary and alternative medicine for several graduate programs at the medical school, and he teaches courses in both allopathic and non-allopathic medicine to Tufts undergraduates.

Dr. Glickman-Simon also chairs the Department of Western Biomedicine at the New England School of Acupuncture in Watertown, MA where he teaches students how to diagnose and treat diseases from a Western biomedical perspective. He previously worked in a primary care practice in the Boston area, providing patients with both conventional care and a variety of complementary medical services.

Dr. Glickman-Simon holds an MD from Tufts and a BA in Physics from the University of Virginia in Charlottesville. He completed his residency in family medicine at the University of Massachusetts in Worcester.

Marjorie Montemayor, MA

Marjorie Montemayor is a Senior Health Editor for EBSCO Publishing's Health Library. Her responsibilities include managing, writing, and editing a variety of articles for Health Library. Marjorie has a master’s degree in health communication from Emerson College and Tufts University School of Medicine (a collaborative program), and a bachelor’s degree in biology from the University of California, San Diego.

Prior to joining EBSCO, Marjorie worked as a protocol specialist for the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) in Boston, MA. She assisted oncologists in developing protocols for clinical trials. Her previous experience also includes working with Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts and the ABC News Medical Unit. Marjorie is a member of the American Medical Writers Association.

Pamela Jones, MA

Pamela Jones is a Health Editor for EBSCO Publishing's Health Library. Her responsibilities include managing, writing, and editing a variety of articles for Health Library. Pamela has a master's degree in health communication from Emerson College and Tufts University School of Medicine (a collaborative program), and a bachelor's degree in cardiopulmonary sciences with a concentration in clinical exercise physiology from Northeastern University.

Prior to joining EBSCO, Pamela worked as a fitness manager for a leading health and fitness center. She provided health and wellness education for staff and members as well as programming for populations with special health needs. She also assisted in the management of a non-profit wellness center for women in transition. Her previous experience included work in cardiac rehabilitation, diabetes management with Joslin Diabetes Center, physical rehabilitation, and hospital surgical services.

Rebecca Stahl, MA

Rebecca Stahl is a Health Editor for EBSCO Publishing's Health Library. Her responsibilities include copy editing, proofreading, and writing. Rebecca has her master’s degree in professional writing from the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, where she specialized in technical writing and teaching. She also holds a bachelor's degree in psychology from the same university.

Prior to joining EBSCO, Rebecca worked as an associate editor and an assistant editor on an online newsletter and a printed magazine. She also worked as a freelance technical writer and taught college writing courses. In addition to her writing background, Rebecca has experience working in the mental health field.

 

Medical Review Board:

On an annual basis, experts must provide EBSCO Publishing with an updated copy of their professional credentials or licensure. EBSCO Publishing agrees that it will not edit the experts' advice in a manner that causally changes its original meaning; will not require an expert to promote a product, device, or service; and will not ask experts to provide advice for information that is outside their area of professional expertise.

Mohei Abouzied, MD is a nuclear medicine attending physician at Millard Fillmore Hospital and Dent Neurological Institute in Buffalo, NY. Dr. Abouzied is also a clinical assistant professor of nuclear medicine at State University of New York at Buffalo. He received his medical degree from Suez Canal University in Ismailia, Egypt.

Maria Adams, MS, MPH, RD is a former editor of EBSCO Publishing's Health Library. She is also a registered dietitian with a master's degree in nutrition communication from the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy at Tufts University, and a Master of Public Health degree from the Tufts University School of Medicine. She has written articles for a variety of health-related publications and has also worked as a clinical dietitian.

Robert C. Algar, MD received his medical degree from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. He performed his residency at Cornell Medical Center serving New York Hospital and Sloan Kettering Memorial Cancer Center. In addition, he completed fellowship training in Clinical Neurophysiology. Dr. Algar is currently practicing as a board certified Neurologist in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Jeff Andrews, MD, FRCSC, FACOG is an associate clinical professor at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, TN. He is also the medical director of quality improvement and patient safety for Women's Patient Care Center, as well as medical director of ambulatory services. He is also the senior physician in the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine. Dr. Andrews received his undergraduate degree, medical degree, and specialty training in OB/GYN from the University of Toronto. He is a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of Canada and a Fellow of the American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists.

Alexander J. Anetakis, MD is a board-certified ophthalmologist who specializes in diseases of the vitreous and retina. Dr. Anetakis completed his undergraduate studies at Youngstown State University and then graduated medical school from Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. After a transitional internship at Summa Health System in Akron, Ohio, Dr. Anetakis completed his residency training in ophthalmology at the Friedenwald Eye Institute in Baltimore, Maryland, where he served as chief resident in ophthalmology. Following his ophthalmology residency, he completed a fellowship in vitreo-retinal disease and surgery at Retina Specialists of Alabama in Birmingham, Alabama. He currently is in private practice in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina.

Miguel Antelo, MD is an attending physician at Merrimack Urology Associates in Chelmsford, MA. He has also served as a clinical instructor in urology at Tufts University School of Medicine in Massachusetts. Dr. Antelo is a graduate of the Universidad Central de Venezuela School of Medicine in Caracas,Venezuela.

Mark A. Best, MD, MPH, MBA is board certified in anatomic pathology, clinical pathology, and blood banking/transfusion medicine. He is a Fellow of the College of American Pathologists, and a Fellow of the American Society for Clinical Pathology. He is also an expert in healthcare quality.

Lawrence S. Blaszkowsky, MD is an assistant professor of Medicine at Tufts-New England Medical Center and Medical Director of Gastrointestinal Malignancies in Boston, Massachusetts. He completed his undergraduate studies at Clark University and graduated from Medical School at the State University of New York Health Science Center at Syracuse. Dr. Blaszkowsky did his internship and residency at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, and his Hematology/Oncology Fellowship training at the Tufts-New England Medical Center.

Steven Bratman, MD earned his medical degree from the University of California at Davis. In 1997, Dr. Bratman instituted and supervised the research program that led to the Natural and Alternative Treatments (NAT) and Evidence-Based Complemtary Medicine (EBCM) Databases and associated books. He is also the author or coauthor of more than ten books in the CAM field.

Adrienne Carmack, MD completed her urology training at the University of Miami School of Medicine. She received her medical degree from Texas A&M University Health Science Center. She has published numerous articles and served as coeditor for the proceedings of an international consensus on bladder cancer. She has also served as a guest editor for Virtual Mentor, the American Medical Association's online ethics journal.

Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD has written and edited hundreds of medical articles for print, Internet, and CD-ROM products. She is the editor-in-chief of both Encyclopedia of Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior, 2nd ed. and Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco: Learning About Drugs, Alcohol, and Addictive Behavior, both published by Macmillan Reference USA.

Judy Chang, MD, FAASM received her medical degree from The University of Alabama School of Medicine. She performed her residency training at The University of California, San Diego, and fellowship training at Stanford University. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

Christopher Cheyer, MD is an assistant professor of ophthalmology at the Wayne State School of Medicine in Detroit, Michigan. He is board certified and fellowship trained in the areas of Ophthalmic Trauma and Reconstructive Surgery. Dr. Cheyer is the Chief of Ophthalmology at Detroit Receiving Hospital and the Director of Ophthalmic Trauma for the Kresge Eye Institute. He attended Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio for medical school and ophthalmology residency training.

Marcin Chwistek, MD is a part of the pain management and supportive oncology care department at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia, Pennysylvania. He received his medical degree at Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow, Poland. He completed an internship at L. Rydygier's Hospital in Krakow, followed by an additional internship and residency in internal medicine at Yale University-Bridgeport Hospital. Dr. Chwistek also completed fellowships at the University of Arizona in integrative medicine and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in Pain and Palliative Care. He is board certified in internal medicine, pain medicine, and hospice and palliative medicine, and specializes in cancer pain and supportive oncology.

Craig Clark, DO, FACC, FAHA, FASE is a cardiologist with the Iowa Heart Center in Des Moines, Iowa. He is board certified in internal medical, cardiovascular disease, and echocardiography. Dr. Clark is Chair of the Department of Medicine at Iowa Lutheran Hospital, clinical assistant professor at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, and Governor of the Iowa Chapter of the American College of Cardiology.

William Danby, MD is a dermatologist in private practice. His interest in acne, hormones, dairy products, and dietary influences on skin disease goes back over 30 years. He is an adjunct assistant professor of medicine (dermatology) at Dartmouth Medical School in New Hampshire. He also is supervising further acne research at international sites.

Nicole DeYampert, MD, FAAD is a board certified dermatologist. She is currently the chief of dermatology at Elmendorf Air Force Base in Alaska. Dr. DeYampert graduated from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and completed a dermatology residency at St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center in New York City.

Marc Ellman, MD is a comprehensive ophthalmologist at the Southwest Eye Institute in El Paso, Texas. He is also Clinical Instructor of ophthalmology for the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. Dr. Ellman completed his undergraduate studies at Ursinus College and then graduated medical school from the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. After a medical internship, Dr. Ellman completed training in medical and surgical eye care at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City, where he served as Chief Resident in Ophthalmology. He has been involved in many research articles and has written and edited numerous health articles and books.

John K. Erban, MD is a graduate of Harvard College and Tufts University School of Medicine. He completed his internal medicine training at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania before completing a Fellowship in Hematology/Oncology in 1990. He is Associate Professor of Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine and Chief of the Division of Hematology/Oncology at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. Erban specializes in breast cancer and hematologic malignancies. He is on the editorial board of the Journal of Clinical Oncology and is immediate past President of the Massachusetts Society of Clinical Oncologists.

Ryan Estévez, MD, PhD, MPH is the principal investigator for a Stanley Medical Research Institute funded study at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. Dr. Estévez is board certified by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology, has won several clinical and teaching accolades and six national awards related to his research. He is currently a Fellow at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior/Resnick Neuropsychiatric Institute at the UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine. He holds a masters degree in social psychology from Stanford University, an MPH in health policy and management from Harvard University, a PhD in experimental (health) psychology from Tufts University, and a medical degree from St. George's University School of Medicine.

Francine Foss, MD is an associate professor of medicine and the director of Lymphoma and Experimental Therapeutics in the Bone Marrow Transplantation Program at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. Foss is a graduate of Dartmouth College and the University of Massachusetts Medical School. She has more than 15 years of experience teaching and practicing in the fields of internal medicine and oncology.

Lawrence Frisch, MD, MPH is a board certified pediatrician with 20 years of clinical experience in the care of adolescents and young adults. He is the John S. and Dora M. Andrews Associate Professor of Community Health Sciences at Northeast Ohio University's College of Medicine. Dr. Frisch also serves as Medical Director of the Mahoning County Health Department. He has served on the medical and public health teaching faculties at the University of Hawaii and the University of Kansas. He is the author of many research articles and (with his wife) of a popular textbook on psychiatric mental health nursing. Dr. Frisch's interests include quality in medical care, mental health and illness, preventing injuries in children, international health, public health practice, programs for children with special health needs, and infectious disease.

Michael J. Fucci, DO is an assistant professor of medicine and diagnostic imaging at the University of Connecticut. He is also the director of nuclear cardiology at the Pat and Jim Calhoun Cardiology Center. Dr. Fucci is a graduate of the College of Osteopathic Medicine, University of New England.

Richard Glickman-Simon, MD is board certified in family medicine and is an assistant professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Community Health at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston. He oversees the curriculum in Complementary and Alternative Medicine for several graduate programs at the medical school, and he teaches courses in both allopathic and non-allopathic medicine to Tufts undergraduates. Dr. Glickman-Simon also chairs the Department of Western Biomedicine at the New England School of Acupuncture in Watertown, Massachusetts where he teaches students how to diagnose and treat diseases from a Western biomedical perspective. He previously worked in a primary care practice in the Boston area, providing patients with both conventional care and a variety of complementary medical services.

Roger Allan Graham, MD is a board certified surgeon in the Department of General Surgery, as well as the Director of the GI and Colorectal Cancer Center and the Breast Health Center at Tufts—New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. He is also an Assistant Professor of Surgery and Otolaryngology at the Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Graham earned his medical degree from The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland. He completed his residency at New England Medical Center and a Fellowship in Surgical Oncology at the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas.

Janet H. Greenhut, MD, MPH is board certified in public health/general preventive medicine. She completed her residency in preventive medicine at Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Greenhut has 20 years of experience in clinical preventive medicine and primary care, and is now working as medical researcher for HealthMedia, Inc. in Ann Arbor, Michigan. At HealthMedia, Dr. Greenhut has contributed to computer-tailored health behavior change and disease management programs in areas such as smoking cessation, weight management, hypertension, diabetes, pain, substance abuse, heart disease, and stress management.

Barbara Harty-Golder, MD, JD graduated from the University of Florida College of Medicine in 1977. She went on to complete her training in pathology and a fellowship in hematopathology there as well. After this, she migrated to the Pacific Northwest where she was an Assistant Professor of Surgical Pathology at Oregon Health Sciences University and an Associate Medical Examiner for the State of Oregon. For 25 years, she practiced pathology in hospital, medical office, and independent laboratory settings in southwest Florida while also working with oncology centers and local cancer organizations there. Her current practice includes consulting, lecturing, and writing. Dr. Harty-Golder is a well recognized national speaker and educator on both medical and legal topics.

David L. Horn, MD, FACP is board certified in internal medicine and infectious diseases. Dr. Horn received his medical degree from New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY; performed his medical residency at Westchester County Medical Center, Valhalla, NY; and completed his fellowship training in infectious diseases at Brown University, Providence, RI. He is a fellow of the American College of Physicians and the Infectious Disease Society of America.
Mujgan Jamil, MD is a board certified internist. She is a consultant for William Backus Hospital in Norwich, CT. She also has a certificate in women's health and served as an assistant clinical professor of medicine at the University of Connecticut. Dr. Jamil completed her residency at the University of Connecticut Health Center and her medical education at Khyber Medical College, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.

David Juan, MD is board certified in both Internal Medicine and Endocrinology & Metabolism. He graduated from the University of Pennsylvania. He was formerly on the faculty at Norwestern Medical School, Department of Medicine, and has also worked in the biopharmaceutical industry where he has been responsible for the development of drugs for treating hypertension, stroke, benign prostatic hypertrophy, erectile dysfunction, and osteoporosis. He has written extensively in the area of nutrition, endocrinology, pain relief, and rationale therapeutics.

Reena Karani, MD is board certified in internal medicine and board eligible in geriatrics. She graduated with honors from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and is currently Director of the Geriatrics Consultation and Liaison Service and Assistant Professor in the Brookdale Department of Geriatrics and Adult Development at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. Dr. Karani's areas of expertise include aging, end-of-life care, and curriculum design and evaluation in graduate medical education.

Kari Kassir, MD is a graduate of UCLA and UC Irvine College of Medicine. She is board certified in Pediatrics and Pediatric Critical Care, and is currently practicing in southern California. She is a fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics and a member of the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

Rhonda Kaufman, MD is a board certified internist. She has held teaching appointments at Harvard, Tufts, and Boston University medical schools, all located in Massachusetts. For the past ten years Dr. Kaufman has served as a consultant to the healthcare industry, specializing in areas such as disease and case management.

John C. Keel, MD is board certified in physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R), and electrodiagnostic medicine. He completed his residency at Emory University in Atlanta, GA. Currently, Dr. Keel is a fellow in interventional pain management in the Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care at Massachusetts General Hospital, affiliated with Harvard Medical School in Boston, MA. He is a flight surgeon in the South Carolina Air National Guard, and has experience as a director of a hyperbaric medicine unit. Dr. Keel also has extensive experience in musculoskeletal and sports medicine, and amputee rehabilitation.

Celeste M. Krauss, MD is board certified in pediatrics, clinical genetics, and clinical cytogenetics. She is a Founding Fellow of the American College of Medical Genetics, as well as a member of the American Society of Human Genetics, American Medical Association, and Massachusetts Medical Society. Her areas of expertise are medical writing/editing, consumer and professional education on topics in genetics, preconception education, prenatal diagnosis, genetic testing, dysmorphology, family history, and genotype-phenotype correlations.

James Kryzanski, MD is the Chief Resident in Neurosurgery at Tufts–New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. He earned his medical degree from Albany Medical College in Albany, New York.
Jill D. Landis, MD is a graduate of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. She completed her internal medicine training at the Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City. After working as a hospitalist, she then pursued a rheumatology fellowship at New York University Hospital. Her areas of expertise include osteoporosis, arthritis, and inflammatory disease.

Donald P. Lawrence, MD is an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. He earned his a BA from the State University of New York at Binghamton, and his medical degree from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. He performed his internship and residency in internal medicine at Beth Israel Hospital in Boston, and his Fellowship in Hematology and Oncology at Tufts-New England Medical Center. Dr. Lawrence's areas of clinical expertise are melanoma and genitourinary malignancies. He also conducts research on symptom management and supportive care of cancer patients.

Robert E. Leach, MD is board certified in orthopaedic surgery, and is a professor of orthopaedic surgery at Boston University Medical School. He is past president of the American Orthopaedic Association, American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, and Boston Orthopaedic Club. He was Editor of the American Journal for Sports Medicine from 1989-2002 and is now Editor Emeritus. He was also the Associate Editor of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, and Editor of American Orthopaedic Journal. Dr. Leach's areas of expertise include sports medicine, skeletal and soft tissue trauma, and joint replacement and resurfacing procedures.

Joan K. Lingen, MD, FACOG is board certified in obstetrics and gynecology. She currently practices ambulatory gynecology and primary care medicine at I & O Medical Centers in Virginia Beach, Virginia. Dr. Lingen graduated summa cum laude from Clarke College in Dubuque, Iowa with a Bachelors of Science degree in biology and chemistry. She then attended The Chicago Medical School on an Armed Forces Health Professions Scholarship through the United States Navy. Upon receipt of her Doctor of Medicine degree, she completed an internship and residency in obstetrics and gynecology at the Naval Hospital in San Diego, California. Over the last several years, Dr. Lingen has developed an interest in the use of computer-based technology in the medical education of both professionals and patients. She has accepted online positions as a lecturer and editor for academic institutions, medical journals, professional websites, and consumer medical information sites.

David R. Little, MD, MS is Associate Professor of Family Medicine at Wright State University Boonshoft School of Medicine, Dayton, Ohio. He received his medical degree at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine in Rootstown, Ohio. He completed a Family Practice residency at Good Samaritan Hospital in Dayton, Ohio, and a fellowship in Academic Family Medicine at The Ohio State University.

Judith Logan, M.D., M.S. is an Assistant Professor of the Department of Medical Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology in the School of Medicine at Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) in Portland, Oregon. Before coming to OHSU, Dr. Logan earned a B.S. in Chemistry from Stanford University, attended medical school at the University of Southern California, and completed a residency in Family Medicine at Ventura, California. She then embarked on a career in emergency medicine. In 1996, she changed her career focus to Medical Informatics and enrolled in the M.S. Program at OHSU where she subsequently earned her degree and joined the OHSU Medical Informatics faculty. Dr. Logan teaches the computer science series for the Masters and Doctoral programs in Biomedical Informatics, including Java programming, computer networking and database courses, and has helped develop a course in data mining techniques. She has research interests in the quality of data in electronic medical records, including issues of integration of information in a medical setting and terminological imprecision. In addition, she is the Director of the OHSU Clinical Research Data Service Center which was established to help OHSU clinical investigators plan, collect and manage clinical research data.

John Long, MD was the Director of Urologic Oncology at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts from 1992-2004. He currently is an Associate professor of Urology at Tufts University School of Medicine, and a partner of New England Urology, LLC, in metrowest Boston. Dr. Long earned his medical degree from Harvard Medical School. He completed his postgraduate training at Massachusetts General Hospital and the National Cancer Institute.

Larissa J. Lucas, MD graduated from the University of Massachusetts Medical School in 1999. She completed residency training in internal medicine at Cambridge Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She was an internist and instructor in medicine for Harvard Medical School for five years and is currently a medical writer for Dynamed, a clinical reference tool created by physicians.

Rimas Lukas, MD is currently completing a fellowship in neuro-oncology at the University of Chicago with plans to pursue a career in academic medicine. After obtaining a medical doctorate at Rush University in Chicago, he completed an internship in internal medicine at Cook County Hospital/John H. Stroger, Jr. Hospital of Cook County in Chicago. Dr. Lukas is currently a sub-investigator in clinical research trials of new therapies for brain tumors.

Daus Mahnke, MD received his medical degree from Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in 1999, completed his residency in Internal Medicine at Yale New Haven Hospital in Connecticut in 2002, and was a Fellow in Training at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center in Denver from 2002-2005. Dr. Mahnke specializes in all aspects of gastroenterology and digestive diseases such as colon cancer screening and reflux disease. He currently practices with Gastroenterology of the Rockies in the Boulder, CO, area, and is on Medical Staff at Boulder Community's Broadway and Foothills Hospitals, Longmont United Hospital, Exempla Good Samaritan Hospital, and Avista Adventist Hospital.

J. Thomas Megerian, MD, PhD, FAAP is a board certified neurologist and pediatrician. Dr. Megerian is the senior medical director at Neurometrix, Inc. and continues to practice pediatrics at the North Shore Children's Hospital, as well as neurology at the Children's Hospital in Boston. He graduated from Union College with a BS in biology and chemistry. Dr. Megerian received his MD and PhD from Northwestern University Medical School in Chicago. A recipient of the Neuroscience Academic Development Award, he also completed a one year behaviorial neurology fellowship at Children's Hospital where he maintains teaching and clinical appointments.

Laura Morris-Olson, DMD is a general dentist in El Paso, Texas. Dr. Olson completed her undergraduate and graduate studies at Texas Tech University where she was involved in many research projects encompassing a wide variety of topics. Dr. Olson graduated dental school from the University of Kentucky College of Dentistry.

Alfred Muller, MD is board certified in internal medicine. He graduated from the Columbia University College of Physicians & Surgeons, and was an Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine at Georgetown University from 1975-2001. He also has 27 years of private practice experience. His areas of expertise include internal medicine and HIV disease. Dr. Muller retired from clinical practice in 2000 and is an emeritus member of the Maryland Medical Society.

Ronald Nath, MD is a board certified surgeon. He graduated from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and completed eight years of training in surgery and cardiovascular surgery at Beth Israel Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Boston University Medical Center, all in Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. Nath is presently a Senior Staff Surgeon at Lawrence Memorial Hospital in Medford, Massachusetts and at Winchester Hospital in Winchester, Massachusetts. He is also a member of the Active Staff and Courtesy Staff at four other local hospitals. In addition, Dr. Nath is a Clinical Instructor in Surgery at the Tufts University Medical School and an Assistant Clinical Professor of Surgery at Boston University Medical Center, both in Boston.

J. Peter Oettgen, MD is a cardiologist at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, MA. One of his positions at the medical center is director of research in the Division of Vascular and Molecular Medicine. Dr. Oettgen is also an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School. He earned his medical degree from theUniversity of Connecticut School of Medicine.

Roshni N. Patel, MD practices neurology and pain management in Connecticut. She graduated from Ross University School of Medicine and completed her neurology residency at the University of Connecticut. Dr. Patel also had a fellowship in pain management at New York University.

Jondavid Pollock, MD, PhD is board certified by the American Board of Radiology with a subspecialty of radiation oncology. He is an adjunct faculty member in the Radiation Oncology Branch of the National Cancer Institute, and the Director of Thoracic Oncology at the Schiffler Cancer Center of Wheeling Hospital in West Virginia. Dr. Pollock is a member of the American Medical Association, American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology, and Massachusetts, Ohio, and West Virginia Medical Societies. His areas of expertise are sarcomas, lymphomas, and solid tumors of the head, neck, breast, lung, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, and gynecologic organs.

Daniel Pratt, MD is the Medical Director of Liver Transplantation and the Clinical Chief of the Division of Gastroenterology at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. He is also an Assistant Professor of Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Pratt earned his medical degree from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, Maryland, and completed his residency as well as a Fellowship in Gastroenterology and Hepatology at Tufts-New England Medical Center. He is board certified in internal medicine and gastroenterology.

Ganson Purcell Jr., MD, FACOG, FACPE is a retired physician, having served 40 years in clinical, academic, and administrative medicine. He now serves on an independent institutional review board and performs some medical consulting. Dr. Purcell received his medical degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons at Columbia Univeristy. He was the chairman/director of obstetrics and gynecology at St. Francis Hospital and Medical Center in Hartford, Connecticut, and a professor and associate chairman at the University of Connecticut Health Sciences Center. Other positions include serving the US Navy as a submarine medical officer, as well as being an associate dean of clinical affairs and associate director at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center.

Igor Puzanov, MD is an Assistant Professor of Medicine in the Division of Hematology-Oncology at Vanderbilt University in Nashville, TN. His major interests are phase I drug development, targeted therapy for renal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Dr. Puzanov earned his medical degree from Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic.

Theodor B. Rais, MD is an Associate Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toledo, Ohio and the Program Director for Child and Adolescent Residency training. He holds board certifications in general psychiatry, as well as in the subspecialties of child and adolescent psychiatry and forensic psychiatry.

Kimberly Rask, MD, PhD is Director of the Emory Center on Health Outcomes and Quality. She is an associate professor of Health Policy and Management in the Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University and associate professor of Medicine in the Emory School of Medicine. Dr. Rask is a clinically active general internist who received her medical training at the University of Pennsylvania and her doctorate in health economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. She is a fellow of the American College of Physicians.

Hassan Rastegar, MD is a Senior Surgeon in the Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery at Tufts–New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. Rastegar is also an Associate Professor at the Tufts University School of Medicine. He earned his medical degree from Pahlavi University Medical School in Shiraz, Iran, and completed post-graduate training at the University of Pennsylvania and Northwestern University. Dr. Rastegar’s clinical specialties include coronary artery surgery, complex valve replacement and repairs, minimally invasive heart surgery, and heart transplantation. He holds board certification from the National Board of Medical Examiners, the American Board of Surgery, and the American Board of Thoracic Surgery.

Elie Edmond Rebeiz, MD, FACS is the Acting Chair of the Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery at Tufts–New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. He is also a Professor of Otolaryngology at Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Rebeiz earned his medical degree and completed his residency at American University of Beirut. He continued with his training as a Fellow in Otolaryngology at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and Lahey Clinic Medical Center. He is certified by the American Board of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

Edward R. Rosick, DO, MPH, MS is board certified in preventive medicine and holistic medicine. He is a university physician and Clinical Assistant Professor of Medicine at The Pennsylvania State University. His areas of expertise include preventive medicine, alternative medicine, weight control, smoking cessation, and college health issues.

Elizabeth S. Smoots, MD is a board certified family physician based in Seattle, Washington. A Fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians, Dr. Smoots specializes in prevention and primary care medicine. She has over 20 years of experience in the medical field in private practice, health maintenance organizations, and various group-practice clinics around the Seattle area.

Thomas Stinson, PhD, MD is the Chief of Anesthesiology at Lawrence Memorial Hospital of Medford in Medford, Massachusetts. He is also President of Pilgrim Medical Associates, P.C., an anesthesiology group practice. Dr. Stinson earned a PhD in physics from MIT and an MD from the University of Miami. He is certified by both the American Board of Pain Medicine and the American Board of Anesthesiology.

Sharon Roseanne Thompson, MD, MPH is currently a fourth year Resident in Obstetrics and Gynecology at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, MA where she serves as Chief Resident for teaching. Her experience in education and curriculum planning spans over 10 years. She is currently an active member of the Brigham and Women's Hospital Education Committee as well as the Partners HealthCare Education Committee which oversees educational activities for five hospitals in the Boston area. Dr. Thompson received her medical degree from Mount Sinai School of Medicine, an MPH from University of California at Berkeley, and her undergraduate degree from Vassar College.

Sergio Waxman, MD is board certified in interventional cardiology. He is the Director of the Center for Cardiovascular Translation Research and the Associate Director of Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology at Tufts–New England Medical Center in Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. Waxman is also an Associate Professor of Medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine. Dr. Waxman earned his medical degree at Universidad Anahuac in Mexico City, Mexico. He then completed his training, from internship through Interventional Cardiovascular Fellowship at the Deaconess Hospital, associated with Harvard Medical School in Boston.

Andrew N. Wilner, MD, FACP is board certified in neurology with added qualifications in clinical neurophysiology. He is also board certified in internal medicine. Dr. Wilner is a reviewer for Annals of Internal Medicine and Epilepsia, and the author of Epilepsy:199 Answers and Epilepsy in Clinical Practice, both from Demos Medical Publishing.

Monica Zangwill, MD, MPH is board certified in internal medicine and in preventive medicine. She earned her MD from Tufts University and her MPH from Harvard University, both in Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. Zangwill is a medical writer, reviewer, and consultant specializing in primary care, preventive medicine, and public health.

Ross Zeltser, MD is a dermatologist at Westchester Dermatology and Mohs Surgery Center in Mount Kisco, New York. He was a surgery fellow at Tufts-New England Medical Center in Boston, MA. He was a resident and chief resident in the Department of Dermatology at Boston University Medical Center and Tufts-New England Medical Center. Dr. Zeltser is a graduate of Columbia University with a degree in biochemistry. He earned his medical degree from the University of Rochester School of Medicine.

 

How to Cite Information from Patient Education Reference Center:

Example using Type 2 Diabetes

Wood D. Type 2 diabetes. Patient Education Reference Center website. http://search.ebscohost.com/. Updated April 2007. Accessed April 1, 2008.


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