Document Types
As many document types as are appropriate will be assigned to each record.

CINAHL document types represent the type of publication being indexed (journal, book, audiovisual, pamphlet, software, dissertation, or research instrument).  They can also describe the format of the individual item being indexed (e.g., editorial, research, review) or indicate the presence of some special data (e.g., exam questions, care plan, questionnaire).

Research studies published with one or more commentaries are indexed as a single citation.  The appropriate document types (e.g., research, commentary, and response) are assigned by the indexer.

The year the document type was added is indicated in parentheses.  If nothing is indicated, the document type was added prior to 1983.

ABSTRACT (92) - indicates material indexed is an abstract. It is used for abstracts of presentations at congresses, conferences, symposia, etc. Use with the document type Bibliography for annotated bibliographies. For materials about abstracting, see CINAHL subject heading: ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING.

ACCREDITATION (97) - indicates document containing information about compliance with accreditation requirements [listed in electronic versions only].

ADVICE AND REFERRAL WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that gives advice and referrals.

ALGORITHM (95) - indicates the presence of an algorithm. For materials about algorithms, see CINAHLsubject heading: ALGORITHMS.

ANECDOTE - indicates an informal narrative.

AUDIOVISUAL (93) - indicates an audiovisual [listed in electronic versions only]. For materials about audiovisuals, see CINAHL subject heading: AUDIOVISUALS.

BIBLIOGRAPHY - indicates the presence of a substantive list of books, audiovisuals, articles, documents, publications, etc., usually on a single topic or related topics. For annotated bibliographies, use with the document type Abstract. For discussions about bibliographies, see CINAHL subject heading: BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES.

BIOGRAPHY (85) - indicates a history or an account of the personal and/or professional life of an individual.

BOOK (85) - indicates a book.

BOOK CHAPTER (93) - indicates a chapter, section, or article within a book [listed in electronic versions only].

BRIEF ITEM (95) - indicates material of less than one page.

CARE PLAN - indicates the presence of a care plan – i.e., a written plan developed to assure consistent care of an individual patient or for a specific disease.  For materials about or how to develop care plans, seeCINAHL subject headings: NURSING CARE PLANS or PATIENT CARE PLANS.

CARTOON (95) - indicates a cartoon.

CASE STUDY - indicates a review of a particular condition, disease, or administrative problem.  Includes case reports.

CEU (85) - indicates material that has been approved by a professional society for continuing education credit.  May be dated or non-dated.  CEU material will be double indexed under the CINAHL subject heading EDUCATION, CONTINUING (CREDIT) as well as under the appropriate subject terms.

CHAT GROUPS (01) - indicates registries on Internet-based communication servers that allow subscribers sharing a common interest to communicate with each other in real time.

CLASSIFICATION TERM (98) - indicates the presence of a NANDA Nursing Diagnosis, IOWA Nursing Intervention or Outcome, or SABA Home Health Care Nursing Diagnosis or Intervention classification term and scope note, together with a CINAHL editorial search suggestion [listed in electronic versions only].

CLINICAL INNOVATIONS (97) - indicates document which describes new approaches to patient care [listed in electronic versions only].

CLINICAL TRIAL (98) - indicates the research study is a clinical trial, a randomized clinical trial, or a randomized controlled trial.  Coordinate with the document type Research.

CODE OF ETHICS (98) - indicates material indexed is a professional code of ethics, or indicates the presence of a professional code of ethics or conduct.  For discussions about professional codes of ethics or conduct, see CINAHL subject headings: ETHICS; ETHICS, DENTAL; ETHICS, MEDICAL; or ETHICS, NURSING.

COMMENTARY - indicates a commentary – i.e., an evaluation or analysis of a previously published article.

COMMERCIAL WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that sells or promotes goods or services for a for-profit business.

COMPUTER PROGRAM (86) - indicates the presence of a written computer program.  For materials about computer programs, see CINAHL subject heading: SOFTWARE or specifics.

CONSUMER/PATIENT TEACHING MATERIALS (97) - indicates the presence of various teaching/educational/learning materials for the consumer or patient.  Use Teaching Materials for materials used for student education or staff development .  For discussions about consumer/patient teaching materials, see CINAHL subject headings: TEACHING MATERIALS and PATIENT EDUCATION.

CORRECTED ARTICLE (93) - indicates an article that has been republished in order to correct, amplify, or restore text and data from the originally published article.

CRITICAL PATH (95) - indicates material indexed is a critical path or care map, or indicates the presence of a critical path or care map.  For discussions about critical paths or care maps, see CINAHL subject heading: CRITICAL PATH.

DIAGNOSTIC IMAGES (97) - indicates the presence of images produced by radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, or other diagnostic imaging procedures.

DIRECTORIES (96) - indicates names and addresses of various persons, agencies, schools, and other institutions.  For discussions about directories, see CINAHL subject heading: INFORMATION RESOURCES.

DOCTORAL DISSERTATION (90) - indicates a doctoral dissertation or thesis [listed in electronic versions only]. For discussions about dissertations, see CINAHL subject heading: THESES AND DISSERTATIONS.

DRUGS (98) - indicates the presence of a description of a drug; includes nursing and other healthcare personnel considerations and patient information [listed in electronic versions only].

EDITORIAL - indicates an editorial.  Includes guest editorials and presidents' messages.

EQUATIONS & FORMULAS (97) - indicates the presence of mathematical equations or formulas.

EXAM QUESTIONS - indicates the presence of CEU questions or test questions that are designed to test your knowledge. Includes quizzes.

FORMS - indicates the presence of sample forms.  For materials about forms, see CINAHL subject heading: DOCUMENTATION or specifics.

GAMES (97) - indicates the presence of a word search, crossword puzzle, maze, or other type of game.  For discussions about games, see CINAHL subject heading: GAMES.

GLOSSARY (96) - indicates lists of words with definitions.

HISTORICAL MATERIAL (92) - indicates material (or a portion thereof) that has been reprinted from an earlier work of historical interest.

INDIVIDUAL TESTIMONIAL WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that contains individual testimonials.

INFORMATION WEBSITE (01) - indicates a website that contains information on various topics.

INTERVIEW (85) - indicates the presence of the published record of a conversation between an interviewer and one or more subjects based on topics posed by the interviewer.

JOURNAL ARTICLE - indicates material published in a journal.  For discussions about journals, see CINAHLsubject heading: SERIAL PUBLICATIONS.

JOURNAL DESCRIPTION (98) - indicates the presence of a description of a journal title, including the scope and audience of the journal [listed in electronic versions only].

LEGAL CASES (97) - indicates the inclusion of a court case or court cases.

LETTER (91) - indicates letters to the editor.

LISTSERVS (01) - indicates email-based services used primarily to broadcast information of interest to subscribers. Some listservs permit their subscribers to broadcast responses to the same subscriber list.

MASTERS THESIS (98) - indicates a master's thesis or dissertation.  For discussion about theses, seeCINAHL subject heading: THESES AND DISSERTATIONS.

NURSE PRACTICE ACTS (96) - indicates material indexed is a nurse practice act or indicates the presence of a nurse practice act within the material.  Use Practice Acts for other than nurse practice acts.  For discussions about nurse practice acts, see CINAHL subject heading: NURSE PRACTICE ACTS.

NURSING DIAGNOSES (88) - indicates material that contains nursing diagnoses as a substantive part of a care plan, case study, or in relation to the subject being discussed.  For materials about nursing diagnosis, see CINAHL subject heading: NURSING DIAGNOSIS or specifics.

NURSING INTERVENTIONS (94) - indicates material that contains nursing interventions as a substantive part of a care plan, case study, or in relation to the subject being discussed.  For materials about nursing interventions, see CINAHL subject heading: NURSING INTERVENTIONS or specifics.

OBITUARY (85) - indicates an obituary.

OTHER (94) - indicates miscellaneous material not yet categorized.

OVERALL (95) - indicates material being indexed contains multiple articles or chapters on the same topic.

PAMPHLET (85) - indicates a pamphlet.

PAMPHLET CHAPTER (93) - indicates a chapter, section, or article within a pamphlet [listed in electronic versions only].

PICTORIAL - indicates the presence of photographs, pictures, or medical illustrations. Not for photographs of the author.

POETRY (96) - indicates a poem or poems.

PRACTICE ACTS (97) - indicates material indexed is a practice act or indicates the presence of a practice act within the material.  Use document type Nurse Practice Acts for nurse practice acts.

PRACTICE GUIDELINES (97) - indicates the presence of practice guidelines. For materials about practice guidelines, see CINAHL subject heading: PRACTICE GUIDELINES.

PROCEEDINGS (92) - indicates collection of papers presented at conferences, symposia, congresses, meetings, etc.  Such papers may be published in full or in an edited or revised form.  For collection of abstracts of papers presented at such conferences, coordinate with document type Abstract.

PROTOCOL (84) - indicates the presence of a protocol – i.e., written plans specifying the methods to be followed in performing various procedures or in conducting research.  For materials about protocols, seeCINAHL subject headings: PROTOCOLS, NURSING PROTOCOLS, or RESEARCH PROTOCOLS.

QUESTIONNAIRE/SCALE (03) - indicates the presence of an instrument that is a series of questions or that requires the marking of a rating along a set interval. For articles about questionnaires or scales, see CINAHLsubject headings: QUESTIONNAIRES or SCALES.

QUESTIONS & ANSWERS (00) - indicates the presence of one or more questions posed by an author, editor, or reader that are subsequently answered in the text.

RESEARCH - indicates an original (includes SECONDARY ANALYSIS), complete research study containing data collection, methodology, discussion of results, etc. For materials about or how to conduct a research study, see specific CINAHL subject headings, such as CLINICAL NURSING RESEARCH or RESEARCH, MEDICAL.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT - (95) - indicates material indexed is a research instrument. To indicate the use of instruments in a body of work, search electronically using the particular name. For material about research instruments, see CINAHL subject heading: RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS or specifics.

RESEARCH TERM DEFINITION - (01) - indicates a record containing a definition and/or description of a term used in the research process along with an example of its application [listed in electronic versions only].

RESPONSE - indicates material written in response to a commentary or to another response.

REVIEW(88) - indicates a review of the published literature that can cover a wide range of subject matter of various levels of completeness or comprehensiveness. The presence of research findings or case reports does not preclude designation as a review.

SEARCH STRATEGY (03) - indicates the presence of a pre-formulated search strategy including subject headings, subheadings, document types, and other limits designed to lead to a final result [listed in electronic versions only].

SOFTWARE (92) - indicates a a piece of educational software [listed in electronic versions only].  For materials about software, see CINAHL subject heading: SOFTWARE or specifics.

STANDARDS (92) - indicates a formal standard of practice or position paper issued by a professional organization.  For materials discussing practice standards, see CINAHL subheading "/standards" with appropriate subject heading(s).

STATISTICS - indicates the presence of statistical data applicable outside the context of a research study. For materials about statistics, see CINAHL subject heading: STATISTICS.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW (98) - indicates a research process in which a concept is identified and the research which has studied it is analyzed and evaluated. The results of this research are synthesized to present the current state of knowledge regarding the concept. Includes integrated or integrative reviews. Coordinate with the document type Research. For materials about systematic reviews, see CINAHL subject heading: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

TABLES/CHARTS (85) - indicates graphs, data in tabular form, or diagrams.

TEACHING MATERIALS - indicates the presence of various teaching/educational/learning materials for students, health personnel, or individuals in various other disciplines.  Use Consumer/Patient Teaching Materials for materials used to educate the consumer or patient.  For discussions about teaching materials, see CINAHL subject headings: TEACHING MATERIALS or TEACHING MATERIALS, CLINICAL.

TRACINGS (95) - indicates a graphic record produced by an instrument capable of making a visual record of movement.  Included here are ECG, EEG, EMG tracings, and waveforms.

WEBSITE (98) -indicates material is a description of a website or contains a description of a website.